Install a graphical desktop on Ubuntu Server 10.04 (without alot of extras)

Sometimes I find the need to install Ubuntu Server with a gnome desktop like the one that you get with Ubuntu Desktop.  You can install Ubuntu Server and then use apt-get to install the package ubuntu-desktop.  However, if you do that you will end up installing almost everything that comes with a Ubuntu Desktop installation.  This is not what I want.

What I really want is a  gnome graphical desktop running on top of Ubuntu Server and very little else.  Here is what I do.

Step 1:

Install Ubuntu Server

Step 2:

Logon and install the following packages.

$ sudo apt-get update

$ sudo apt-get install ubuntu-desktop –no-install-recommends

You will want the indicator applets.

$ sudo apt-get install indicator-applet-complete indicator-applet

If you want a web browser, a good choice is chromium.

$ sudo apt-get install chromium-browser

Step 3:

Reboot and enjoy.

That is all.

Fedora 15: Enable your laptop fingerprint reader

If your laptop has a built-in fingerprint reader, here is how to enable it for logins under gnome3.  In this example, I’m using a Lenovo T60 laptop.

Start the Authentication application.

On the advanced options tab,  enable the fingerprint reader.

Next open a terminal window.

Run fprintd-enroll with your username.  To record your fingerprint scan, it will ask you to swipe your index finger three times successfully.

That is all.  You can test by logging out and logging in again.  On the gdm login screen, select your username and select the icon for the fingerprint.  Then scan your right index finger and it should log you in.

How to prevent a Debian or Ubuntu package from being upgraded

Recently, I wanted to hold my virtualbox software at version 4.04 and prevent it from being upgraded.  If you use the gnome update-manager, you can always deselect the virtualbox  package in the GUI each time.  If you don’t like having to do that each time, I will show you two additional methods.  The first method using aptitude and the second method using dpkg/apt-get.  Choose one method or the other, the two methods are independent.

Method 1: Aptitude

Use aptitude to place a hold on a package and this will allow aptitude to upgrade everything else except packages that you have “held back”.

I’ll show you how to place a hold on the virtualbox package (virtualbox-4.0).

Start aptitude.

$ sudo aptitude

Your first action should always be to update your repo cache.  Hit the “u” key.

Next, search for virtualbox.  The “/” key will bring up a search box.  Enter virtualbox and hit enter.

If virtualbox is installed, aptitude should find it.

Hit the “=” key to place a hold on the virtualbox package.

You should see the flags “ih” now associated with the virtualbox package.  This means that virtualbox is installed and there is a hold placed on it.  It won’t be upgraded while it is held back.

Whenever you want to clear the hold flag, search and select the virtualbox package again and hit the “:” key.  That will remove the hold.

To upgrade your server.  Use the arrow keys to go to the top of the list and select the Upgradeable Packages.  Then hit the “g” key.

Hit the “q” key to quit aptitude.

Packages that are held back will still show in the Upgradable Package list whenever there are upgrades available for download.  If you try to upgrade it, it will be skipped.  As shown below.

If you prefer to use the cmdline, this is how to do everything that I just talked about, place a hold on virtualbox and upgrade everything (except virtualbox).

$ sudo aptitude update

$ sudo aptitude hold virtualbox-4.0

$ sudo aptitude safe-upgrade

And when you are ready to remove the “hold” placed previously on virtualbox and upgrade everything

$ sudo aptitude update

$ sudo aptitude keep virtualb0x-4.0

$ sudo aptitude safe-upgrade

Method 2: dpkg/apt-get

To place a hold on virtualbox and upgrade everything (except virtualbox).

$ sudo apt-get update

$ echo “virtualbox-4.0 hold” | sudo dpkg –set-selections

$ echo apt-get upgrade

To remove that hold on virtualbox and upgrade everything.

$ sudo apt-get update

$ echo “virtualbox-4.0 install” | sudo dpkg –set-selections

$ sudo apt-get upgrade

Summary

Whichever method you choose, please remember that each method is independent of the other.  In other words, if you use aptitude to place a hold on a package, then apt-get won’t see that hold.  If you place a hold using dpkg, then aptitude won’t see that hold either.   So remember to be consistent with whichever method you choose.  Yeah, it’s a bit nuts.